Beta is the second of the Greek letters. Beta version is in the second version stage of software development. The first phase of the internal version Alpha was not stable enough and was only tested internally, as well as many features were not yet fully developed. Compared to the Alpha version, the Beta version is tested for the public and is more stable, but still needs to be completed and new features and content added


Blockchains, also known as "distributed ledgers", can be used to store information. Information is stored in "blocks" that are distributed in a way that links the end of the previous block like a chain. The birth and development of blockchain have been influenced by cryptography, where cryptographers aim to create a record that cannot be tampered with in order to achieve a trustworthy system construction. Due to the important role of technologies such as “timestamp technology” and “blind signature” algorithms in its development, blockchain technologies are thought to be untamperable. The blockchain is also decentralised compared to the widely used of storing information of today. Currently, our information is stored in a number of servers, which can simply be physically stored in a building. If a fire broke out in the building and destroyed the servers, the information would be lost. The decentralised distribution of the blockchain would avoid this massive loss of data, as the servers would not be stored centrally in one building.

Computer art

The term originated in the magazine Computers and Automation in 1963. It refers to art forms that incorporate computer technology into the creation of art. Computer art is often used as an early precursor to “digital art”. It usually is spoken about in the context of early experimentation with computer painting, drawing and image processing, and refers to a specific group of artists who pioneered and contributed greatly to the creation of such digital technologies that we use today for visual processing. Computer art was developed in the early 1970’s through collaborations between artists and technological laboratories. The most famous of which is Dell laboratory that included such pioneering figures as: Claude Shannon, Ken Knowlton, Leon Harmon, Lillian Schwartz, Charles Csuri, A. Michael Noll, Edward Zajec, and Billy Klüver, an engineer who also collaborated with Robert Rauschenberg to form Experiments in Art and Technology (EAT)

Crypto Art

Crypto Art It is an emerging term and there is no very clear and unambiguous explanation or concept of it. From reading and comparing the contexts in which the term appears, it can be tentatively concluded that crypto art is often used to denote the art of linking into a cryptography-based distributed database (blockchain), and therefore crypto art is also equated with NFT art in many cases.

Crypto Mining

Crypto mining is the process of verifying cryptocurrency transactions and adding them to the blockchain. The person who completes this process is known as a "miner". In simple terms, miners use equipment to perform work in support of the blockchain and are rewarded with cryptocurrency by creating a “Proof of Work”. This is a complex term involving computer concepts such as "Hash" and "Peer-to-Peer". Read more: Hash Functions and Cryptocurrency Mining.


Cryptocurrency is also known as a digital asset. Cryptocurrency transactions are based on a decentralised blockchain and are secured using “smart contracts” and other cryptographic technologies, as opposed to the central bank model. Because transactions are carried out by smart contracts and an untamperable record of transactions is recorded on the blockchain, transactions in cryptocurrencies do not need to be regulated by other authorities or guaranteed by third-party institutions.

Digital Technology

Digital technology is characterised by its use of binary code, to emit electronic transmissions that are translated into image, sound and other faculties. . It is usually referring to technology that is developed with the use of computers. The premise of digital technology is related to what is called ‘the multimedia revolution’ - the ability to directly translate different inputs such as light, sound, movement etc. into one language that can then be translated back to an image, sound or a set of data - all on the same device. Digital technology allows us to consume different outputs with one compact device- like our computer or phone - and translate sound to image, image to sound, movement to a set of data that can be translated as an image - etc. Since the conversion of most of our electronic tools and appliances to digital technology, it has become integrated into our day-to-day life, and adopted for various artistic interventions..

Digital art

The concept of digital art is a broad term that had a profound meaning in the early days of the digital revolution but had become ubiquitous as it progressed. Generally speaking, it could be defined as art that is created with the use of digital technology and is presented in forms such as, but not limited to, audio, video, digital painting, digital sculptures, or 3D printing, text, programmes, interactive platforms etc. Read more: V&A: Digital Art.
Interactive art
In traditional art forms, viewers are seen as passive entities in relation to the artwork's shape and interpretation. Subsequently, in such artworks, interaction is largely limited to viewing objects as inanimate and stationary. Interactive art, on the other hand, looks at the artwork as an event, a platform or a space within which the viewer may take an active role. The viewer not only has a direct “contact” with the artwork but also becomes part of it. Interaction can take many shapes and forms, such as sculptures that can be touched and installations that can be moved. Interactive artworks often capture and process live information with the use of computers and a range of sensors, for example.

The Internet of Things

The internet of things refers to the connection of a physical object, or group of physical objects, in reality to the Internet via information sensing devices. It is used in a wide range of industries such as healthcare, construction and industry, for example using devices to monitor patients' physical signs and to process and feedback this data according to agreed protocols. Feel like this needs more explaination.

New media art

New media art is a broad concept that incorporates contemporary media technologies in its creation: video, digitisation, sound, 3D printing and so on, and is therefore distinct from traditional art forms. New media art began to emerge in the 1950s and the quantity and quality of work grew rapidly in the 1990s with the development of internet technology. Maybe say where, Europe?

Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT)

NFT is often thought to denote artworks that attracted attention around 2020 and that can be traded on the blockchain (see next entry). However, NFT is not an artwork, but is used to record and verify the existence of certain projects and transactions. In other words, the NFT is a credential used to record and prove that the artwork is linked into the blockchain. Not only artworks, but any documents, applications can be stored to the blockchain and mint NFTs.


This term is closely related to Internet art and is somewhat controversial in the art world. In the absence of a description of the art form, Post-Internet can often only represent an artistic idea and lead to a wider discussion of the Internet age. Post-Internet is also often considered to represent the 21st century art movement that originated from Internet art. I feel like this needs more explanation. What or who triggered this discussion?

Sound art

Sound art does not only refer to pleasant sounds (music, poetry, etc.) but also to forms of artistic creation using sound as a medium. It encompasses a wide range of sound forms: noise, music, etc., and advocates respect for sound and the sense of hearing.

Virtual art

Virtual art is often thought of as the virtualization what is virtualization? of art. VR technology was introduced to art as a result of the huge technological advances of the 1990s. It allows for the creation of a simulated reality for the viewer, capturing their physical information to create an interactive sensory experience. Virtual art is the type of art that is created on the basis of this technology World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web is the "www" in web address. “www” is stored on the Internet as a document, presented as a "page" and displayed by a "web browser The "Web browser" displays these documents on the Internet. These documents on the Internet are linked by a "Hyperlink" and arranged and organized by a "Website".




How to write to practitioners?

Reaching out to a practitioner can feel daunting, especially when they are someone whose work you admire.  Sending an email is a great way to reach out to somebody in a friendly and approachable manner, and can allow you to create connections with people and grow your network. Follow these tips below to learn how to send the perfect email. ︎


Finding contact details

So you’ve stumbled across the work of someone you admire, and want to find out more. Reaching out to them via email is a great way to connect to either ask a question or arrange a video call. First things first is to find their email address. Some practitioners make it super easy and publish their email address on their website, whereas others keep this information more private. You may have to reach out to the practitioner via social media, or search their LinkedIn. There is nothing wrong with messaging someone on social media, sending an Instagram DM may actually be someone's preferred method of communication!


Writing the message

When sending an initial message, it is important to be clear and concise and get your point across quickly, it is better to outline your request and follow up with more information if asked. Remember: these are busy people! The template below is great outline to use if reaching out to a practitioner to ask for an interview:

Dear Professor Graham,

My name is Amelia Kedge and I'm a student of MA Culture, Criticism and Curation at Central Saint Martins. I am currently working on a collaborative group project with Arebyte Gallery, London, where we are asked to create a digital toolkit for curating net.art.

We are researching resources and people of interest on the topic of digital curation, as well as the creation of digital and net.art, and what it means in the current social and political climate to curate online.

I'm reaching out to you in the hope to get an insight into your own practice, as well as your experience of working online. We hope to gather as much insight as possible and create a useful resource for fellow curators.

Please let me know if it would be of interest to you to arrange a short interview to discuss your thoughts on these topics.

Kind regards,


In this example, the student is straight to the point and clearly outlines their project and what they are asking from the recipient. Whilst it might be tempting to shower the practitioner with praise and adoration, it is more important to remain professional in tone.


Now we wait...

Once you have emailed your practitioner, you wait. You may get a super quick response, or they may not get back to you at all. Or after months have passed and you’ve completely forgotten all about it you may receive a ‘sorry, just seen this’. Either way, don’t be offended if you don’t get a response, and don’t let it put you off, we all are guilty of missing emails or being totally swamped and unable to reply.

If you do get a response, great! You’re one step closer to building a connection. If they’ve asked you for more information, now is your time to elaborate on the details of your project or request - be sure to make it clear how their impact will help achieve your desired outcome.

If they have agreed to be interviewed, send them some dates and times and an option of video calling platforms to use (Microsoft Teams, Google Meets, and Zoom are probably the most common) and be sure to make clear how long the interview will be, ideally no more than an hour. You should also make clear what your intention is with the interview, is it going to be published or is it for your own personal use? If you're going to record it you must ask the interviewees permission first, and offer to share with them a copy of the recording and/or transcript after the event.

How to Interview? ︎︎︎

After deciding on an interview, you can prepare the following questions: who? how? when? where? 


The first thing we need to do is to identify the people to be interviewed according to the needs of the project content. These names may be obtained from pre-project research or through referrals from practitioners in the field. The interview list should be as long as possible, as we cannot be sure how many of them will respond and participate. At this stage of the list, we should already have a basic understanding of the practitioners we are interviewing through our research.

Once we have a list of interviewees, the next step is to write an email. About how to write emails to practitioners: please see the session “How to write email to practitioners”.

Once you have heard back from the interviewees, it is time to get to know them better. This can be done by looking at their work, their publications, their experience in the field and gaining insight into their professional abilities. It is also possible to learn about their expressions and opinions from previous interviews they have participated in. It is best if both video and written interviews can be found, as it is possible to compare the difference between the interviewees' real language and their written language.


The list of interviewees can be accompanied by a list of interview questions. The questions at this stage are specific to the content of the project, but they are relatively broad, as they need to be adapted to the target audience once the responses have been received, for example by asking questions about projects the interviewee has worked on in the past, or by discussing what the interviewee has said. These questions can be sent to the interviewees so that they can prepare well.

The identification of the interview questions can help to organise the whole interview process and estimate the interview time. In addition, anticipating the material that will be used during the interview is also something that needs to be prepared at this stage. For example, if we are sure that we will be discussing some works or exhibitions, it is a good idea to prepare links or documents in advance so that the discussion can be more effective.

When? Where?

The time and place of the interview should be communicated to the interviewee in a follow-up email or social media post.

Online interviews are a more flexible option because neither the interviewer nor the interviewee has to be distracted by location and travel arrangements. One thing that needs to be prepared in advance is the link to the online interview. The interviewer can access the interview link in advance to set up the equipment and to check the features and limitations of some online interview platforms, for example Zoom's online meetings have time limits.

Offline interviews are more conducive to closer communication with interviewees. The location of the interview should be confirmed or booked in advance to ensure it is a quiet and comfortable environment. The interviewers also have to know some necessary information of the environment, for example the location of washroom. If the interview is to be recorded, the environment should be conducive to the placement of such equipment.


The interview process is not only a process of asking questions according to the interview questions, but there are also a number of aspects that the interviewer can optimise throughout the process.

The first is the number of interviewers. Ideally there can be two or more interviewers, as at least one person can focus on the environment of the interview: aspects such as recording equipment, notes, length of online sessions, etc.

Next is the content of the interview. Even if an outline of the interview is already in place, the interview process is flexible and any delving into the topic will bring about changes in the interview questions. Our research on the interviewee will help us to guide the change of topic confidently in this part of the process.

Finally, there is the state of the interviewee. The whole interview should be respectful and relaxed, and we should help in this area if the interviewee shows nervousness (although we may be more nervous!).


With regard to consent, this is an issue that needs to be looked at both before and after the interview.

The permissions we need to ask for before the interview are mainly about the interview process. If we require audio, video, text transcription or other recording, this should be asked for in an email communication and agreed to by the interviewee.

Permissions that need to be obtained after the interview are whether we can handle the material obtained during the interview. If video, audio or text needs to be edited, formal permission should be obtained. After editing, it is also necessary to confirm with the interviewee the final content that can be published.

Finally, good luck! ︎︎