Beta is the second of the Greek letters. Beta version is in the second version stage of software development. The first phase of the internal version Alpha was not stable enough and was only tested internally, as well as many features were not yet fully developed. Compared to the Alpha version, the Beta version is tested for the public and is more stable, but still needs to be completed and new features and content added


Blockchains, also known as "distributed ledgers", can be used to store information. Information is stored in "blocks" that are distributed in a way that links the end of the previous block like a chain. The birth and development of blockchain have been influenced by cryptography, where cryptographers aim to create a record that cannot be tampered with in order to achieve a trustworthy system construction. Due to the important role of technologies such as “timestamp technology” and “blind signature” algorithms in its development, blockchain technologies are thought to be untamperable. The blockchain is also decentralised compared to the widely used of storing information of today. Currently, our information is stored in a number of servers, which can simply be physically stored in a building. If a fire broke out in the building and destroyed the servers, the information would be lost. The decentralised distribution of the blockchain would avoid this massive loss of data, as the servers would not be stored centrally in one building.

Computer art

The term originated in the magazine Computers and Automation in 1963. It refers to art forms that incorporate computer technology into the creation of art. Computer art is often used as an early precursor to “digital art”. It usually is spoken about in the context of early experimentation with computer painting, drawing and image processing, and refers to a specific group of artists who pioneered and contributed greatly to the creation of such digital technologies that we use today for visual processing. Computer art was developed in the early 1970’s through collaborations between artists and technological laboratories. The most famous of which is Dell laboratory that included such pioneering figures as: Claude Shannon, Ken Knowlton, Leon Harmon, Lillian Schwartz, Charles Csuri, A. Michael Noll, Edward Zajec, and Billy Klüver, an engineer who also collaborated with Robert Rauschenberg to form Experiments in Art and Technology (EAT)

Crypto Art

Crypto Art It is an emerging term and there is no very clear and unambiguous explanation or concept of it. From reading and comparing the contexts in which the term appears, it can be tentatively concluded that crypto art is often used to denote the art of linking into a cryptography-based distributed database (blockchain), and therefore crypto art is also equated with NFT art in many cases.

Crypto Mining

Crypto mining is the process of verifying cryptocurrency transactions and adding them to the blockchain. The person who completes this process is known as a "miner". In simple terms, miners use equipment to perform work in support of the blockchain and are rewarded with cryptocurrency by creating a “Proof of Work”. This is a complex term involving computer concepts such as "Hash" and "Peer-to-Peer". Read more: Hash Functions and Cryptocurrency Mining.


Cryptocurrency is also known as a digital asset. Cryptocurrency transactions are based on a decentralised blockchain and are secured using “smart contracts” and other cryptographic technologies, as opposed to the central bank model. Because transactions are carried out by smart contracts and an untamperable record of transactions is recorded on the blockchain, transactions in cryptocurrencies do not need to be regulated by other authorities or guaranteed by third-party institutions.

Digital Technology

Digital technology is characterised by its use of binary code, to emit electronic transmissions that are translated into image, sound and other faculties. . It is usually referring to technology that is developed with the use of computers. The premise of digital technology is related to what is called ‘the multimedia revolution’ - the ability to directly translate different inputs such as light, sound, movement etc. into one language that can then be translated back to an image, sound or a set of data - all on the same device. Digital technology allows us to consume different outputs with one compact device- like our computer or phone - and translate sound to image, image to sound, movement to a set of data that can be translated as an image - etc. Since the conversion of most of our electronic tools and appliances to digital technology, it has become integrated into our day-to-day life, and adopted for various artistic interventions..

Digital art

The concept of digital art is a broad term that had a profound meaning in the early days of the digital revolution but had become ubiquitous as it progressed. Generally speaking, it could be defined as art that is created with the use of digital technology and is presented in forms such as, but not limited to, audio, video, digital painting, digital sculptures, or 3D printing, text, programmes, interactive platforms etc. Read more: V&A: Digital Art.
Interactive art
In traditional art forms, viewers are seen as passive entities in relation to the artwork's shape and interpretation. Subsequently, in such artworks, interaction is largely limited to viewing objects as inanimate and stationary. Interactive art, on the other hand, looks at the artwork as an event, a platform or a space within which the viewer may take an active role. The viewer not only has a direct “contact” with the artwork but also becomes part of it. Interaction can take many shapes and forms, such as sculptures that can be touched and installations that can be moved. Interactive artworks often capture and process live information with the use of computers and a range of sensors, for example.

The Internet of Things

The internet of things refers to the connection of a physical object, or group of physical objects, in reality to the Internet via information sensing devices. It is used in a wide range of industries such as healthcare, construction and industry, for example using devices to monitor patients' physical signs and to process and feedback this data according to agreed protocols. Feel like this needs more explaination.

New media art

New media art is a broad concept that incorporates contemporary media technologies in its creation: video, digitisation, sound, 3D printing and so on, and is therefore distinct from traditional art forms. New media art began to emerge in the 1950s and the quantity and quality of work grew rapidly in the 1990s with the development of internet technology. Maybe say where, Europe?

Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT)

NFT is often thought to denote artworks that attracted attention around 2020 and that can be traded on the blockchain (see next entry). However, NFT is not an artwork, but is used to record and verify the existence of certain projects and transactions. In other words, the NFT is a credential used to record and prove that the artwork is linked into the blockchain. Not only artworks, but any documents, applications can be stored to the blockchain and mint NFTs.


This term is closely related to Internet art and is somewhat controversial in the art world. In the absence of a description of the art form, Post-Internet can often only represent an artistic idea and lead to a wider discussion of the Internet age. Post-Internet is also often considered to represent the 21st century art movement that originated from Internet art. I feel like this needs more explanation. What or who triggered this discussion?

Sound art

Sound art does not only refer to pleasant sounds (music, poetry, etc.) but also to forms of artistic creation using sound as a medium. It encompasses a wide range of sound forms: noise, music, etc., and advocates respect for sound and the sense of hearing.

Virtual art

Virtual art is often thought of as the virtualization what is virtualization? of art. VR technology was introduced to art as a result of the huge technological advances of the 1990s. It allows for the creation of a simulated reality for the viewer, capturing their physical information to create an interactive sensory experience. Virtual art is the type of art that is created on the basis of this technology World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web is the "www" in web address. “www” is stored on the Internet as a document, presented as a "page" and displayed by a "web browser The "Web browser" displays these documents on the Internet. These documents on the Internet are linked by a "Hyperlink" and arranged and organized by a "Website".



Throughout most of the interviews there was an overwhelming sense of urgency to bring together practitioners who work online. It was apparent that there was a lack of a supportive network, to which one could turn for advice, solutions, or just emotional support. It has been made clear to us that creating and curating online can be stressful and unpredictable. We felt compelled to facilitate that network, and bring all these people together to interact and engage with each other. As a starting point for the forum, we decided to showcase our interaction with current and former practitioners of net.art, hoping to inspire people who are intimidated or alienated from the realm of online curation. Returning back to the caring aspect of curation, we want to create an ecosystem of care and support within the community, to support current practitioners, while at the same time bringing in people who are interested in these practices. 

This forum is a prototype of what we envision it to be. We are aiming to host and facilitate an ongoing discussion on the challenges and the oppotunities of curating online.

We strongly encourage you to engage with the insights provided by our contributors. Your opinion and feedback is important to us. Feel free to add your comments/questions on our Google Drive folder ︎︎︎here

How would you define the relationship
between creating and curating net.art?

︎︎︎Beryl Graham ︎︎︎

Yes, I think that's one of the biggest differences for curators is that it’s completely different from the way that curators traditionally have worked. Curators must understand that artists don't necessarily need them, artists can directly put their own work on the internet. However, some of the means of what museums and galleries do are that they are the place which people trust to go to find net art. Otherwise, how would they find individual net artists unless you know their names? It's getting a handle on that means of distribution, and I really liked the way that you've been using all these proprietary platforms.

︎︎︎Rebecca Edwards ︎︎︎ 

The relationship between creating and curating net.art can be very simple; an artist creates a net.art work, and a curator perhaps chooses this work for a group show or has conversations with the artist on how to develop it further.

The relationship becomes more complex when the artist is also the curator, which has historically been the case for net.art. The boundaries between creating and curating are very blurry here as there’s so much more at stake in terms of presentation and accessibility, but also of naming and targeting with SEO. As the browser/web page becomes the gallery, artists working with net.art are already thinking curatorially.

︎︎︎Nimrod Vardi ︎︎︎

On one hand, those who create net.art have greater technical knowledge and practical skills, whereas those who curate do not necessarily need the same skillset. Saying that, curators which do have the technical knowledge can have better understanding of the works and deeper dialogue with the artists on the nature of their work and practice.

Net.art, does not require a specialist audience, but for those who do have the specific knowledge, works which may seem too technical, can be very poetic, deep, and philosophical.

︎︎︎Zach Blas ︎︎︎

I tend to understand curating as being about presentation. It's about taking work and giving it a frame or a platform. I think curating is a lot about making context. if you're doing a group show, it's about creating an articulating, something that is happening with a group of artists that maybe those artists don't even realise amongst themselves.

︎︎︎Heath Bunting ︎︎︎

Well, I was obviously very active in the 90s. With the internet, and there wasn't much difference between curating and producing that are at the time, because it was an emerging field. And as artists, you would probably have to produce the work.

At the beginning, there was no difference. The artists had to do everything. And then as the scene evolved, it became partially incorporated into the existing art world or certainly the media arts world. And then there was a separation of kind of interests, skills, and responsibilities.

︎︎︎Tian Xiaolei ︎︎︎

It's all about creation but from different perspectives. The creator is more concerned with the theme, the perspective of art history insertion, the work’s language and form, and the exhibition’s effect. I don't have much experience with curating, but I understand it as finding a style in the curatorial circuit, focusing on the scarcity value of curatorial issues and the form of the exhibition site, which it’s a bit like the secondary creation of collage works and the artist is the material.

Usually, the artists are the directors of their own works, the artists have the greatest dominance and sense of control, but when the perspective is zoomed into a thematic exhibition, especially a large group exhibition, individual artists' works may well become actors. I understand that curating is also a kind of improvisation, the artist's work is the practice of the curatorial concept and the language of expression. I think a good curation is worthy of respect and cooperation, which should be the relationship of the community and a bit like a large party, each programme should be exciting and have a unified thematic style, and the curator is the general director.

What is the most daring thing you wanted to do? And why didn’t you?

︎︎︎Eliott Burns ︎︎︎

We had discussion of, resurfacing all the dead exhibitions, the archived shows, or at least a portion of them. 

︎︎︎Nimrod Vardi ︎︎︎

On one hand, ‘Daring’ these days is to not be on social media, to allow one not to chase the constant feed and need to be connected, but on the other is to make oneself open and therefore also vulnerable and potentially hurt – so there is not one definite answer, as we shift between self-protection to being exposed very often.

︎︎︎Pita Aerola ︎︎︎

I think we were very daring with what we aware doing. We wanted to do more hybrid  projects.

︎︎︎Rebecca Edwards ︎︎︎

During the pandemic, I wanted to curate artworks in the spaces of ads on websites. Raphael Rozendaal did something similar a decade ago but since the change in privacy / cookie / web-related content settings, it felt like an impossible task. Interestingly, a curator called Heiko managed to do this and set up KunstSurfer.  

︎︎︎Tian Xiaolei ︎︎︎

Finding an island to make an amusement park, but no chance and no money..

What kind of tool do you wish you had when creating or curating online?

︎︎︎Vuk Ćosić ︎︎︎

You need to start thinking like a machine...

︎︎︎Pita Aerola ︎︎︎

I, I guess. And assign a coder there. Because we coded everything as we could. Sometimes it was very stressful. And because there are certain things that you want the artists or their work to be able to realise. It's very hard to code or the platform has the limitations. And if you code everything from scratch, and it can be quite expensive, and very labour intensive, but I think maybe having like someone that could support like coding the shows will have been useful.

︎︎︎Eliott Burns ︎︎︎

A coding bootcamp would have been good.

︎︎︎Rebecca Edwards ︎︎︎

An AI programmer!

︎︎︎Nimrod Vardi ︎︎︎

Creating in general. Translating abstract ideas to works of art. Similar when curating.

How would you imagine a toolkit for online curation to look like?

︎︎︎Rebecca Edwards ︎︎︎

Something that is constantly being added to or updated. Something that allows curators to think outside of the box. Something that is accessible and fun to use. Something that considers the context in which it is situated.

︎︎︎Nimrod Vardi ︎︎︎

An open-source, ongoing, evolutionary database which is accessible but everyone who wants to learn and contribute knowledge to the field.

︎︎︎Eliott Burns ︎︎︎

There was an attempt. Put together a community group for collective representation. Almost like a gallery map network that showcase those galleries. Galley map networks that directly advocate. SUPPORT NETWORKS.  There is a structure here by which people who are working in the same field can cone together. Often the stress and strain are not communication between each other. engage with. Not saying well done. I appreciate what do you. Do we have a problem. A supportive network. here are digital art programs that need to be extended the support down the hierarchy. The art is more of a support network versus a strict tool kit.
USEFUL; it needs to be not intergenerational it has to recognize that online spaces stay under the radar in terms of the art world.  

︎︎︎Pita Aerola ︎︎︎

Community. More examples, like a friend who is also doing similar things. Things like these are Built organically. People are very generous with us, because we are generous with them. Nobody had the time to be there. FUNDING and hiring someone. What is the minimum input and output? Policy into exhibition making, not much money.

︎︎︎Hu Bin ︎︎︎

The curatorial tools I'm looking for are not limited to design and technical aspects, a lot of the work can actually be left to other collaborative teams, but the greater value of the curator is how the mind forms a concept or idea, and at the moment I don't see any tools that are particularly effective in this regard. But rather than a tool, it's a curatorial methodology that can help curators in terms of inspiration and concept.

︎︎︎Vuk Ćosić ︎︎︎

I would say passion! And a mailing list, like an agora, but carefully curated. Let’s belong to something bigger and win the world over.