Beta is the second of the Greek letters. Beta version is in the second version stage of software development. The first phase of the internal version Alpha was not stable enough and was only tested internally, as well as many features were not yet fully developed. Compared to the Alpha version, the Beta version is tested for the public and is more stable, but still needs to be completed and new features and content added


Blockchains, also known as "distributed ledgers", can be used to store information. Information is stored in "blocks" that are distributed in a way that links the end of the previous block like a chain. The birth and development of blockchain have been influenced by cryptography, where cryptographers aim to create a record that cannot be tampered with in order to achieve a trustworthy system construction. Due to the important role of technologies such as “timestamp technology” and “blind signature” algorithms in its development, blockchain technologies are thought to be untamperable. The blockchain is also decentralised compared to the widely used of storing information of today. Currently, our information is stored in a number of servers, which can simply be physically stored in a building. If a fire broke out in the building and destroyed the servers, the information would be lost. The decentralised distribution of the blockchain would avoid this massive loss of data, as the servers would not be stored centrally in one building.

Computer art

The term originated in the magazine Computers and Automation in 1963. It refers to art forms that incorporate computer technology into the creation of art. Computer art is often used as an early precursor to “digital art”. It usually is spoken about in the context of early experimentation with computer painting, drawing and image processing, and refers to a specific group of artists who pioneered and contributed greatly to the creation of such digital technologies that we use today for visual processing. Computer art was developed in the early 1970’s through collaborations between artists and technological laboratories. The most famous of which is Dell laboratory that included such pioneering figures as: Claude Shannon, Ken Knowlton, Leon Harmon, Lillian Schwartz, Charles Csuri, A. Michael Noll, Edward Zajec, and Billy Klüver, an engineer who also collaborated with Robert Rauschenberg to form Experiments in Art and Technology (EAT)

Crypto Art

Crypto Art It is an emerging term and there is no very clear and unambiguous explanation or concept of it. From reading and comparing the contexts in which the term appears, it can be tentatively concluded that crypto art is often used to denote the art of linking into a cryptography-based distributed database (blockchain), and therefore crypto art is also equated with NFT art in many cases.

Crypto Mining

Crypto mining is the process of verifying cryptocurrency transactions and adding them to the blockchain. The person who completes this process is known as a "miner". In simple terms, miners use equipment to perform work in support of the blockchain and are rewarded with cryptocurrency by creating a “Proof of Work”. This is a complex term involving computer concepts such as "Hash" and "Peer-to-Peer". Read more: Hash Functions and Cryptocurrency Mining.


Cryptocurrency is also known as a digital asset. Cryptocurrency transactions are based on a decentralised blockchain and are secured using “smart contracts” and other cryptographic technologies, as opposed to the central bank model. Because transactions are carried out by smart contracts and an untamperable record of transactions is recorded on the blockchain, transactions in cryptocurrencies do not need to be regulated by other authorities or guaranteed by third-party institutions.

Digital Technology

Digital technology is characterised by its use of binary code, to emit electronic transmissions that are translated into image, sound and other faculties. . It is usually referring to technology that is developed with the use of computers. The premise of digital technology is related to what is called ‘the multimedia revolution’ - the ability to directly translate different inputs such as light, sound, movement etc. into one language that can then be translated back to an image, sound or a set of data - all on the same device. Digital technology allows us to consume different outputs with one compact device- like our computer or phone - and translate sound to image, image to sound, movement to a set of data that can be translated as an image - etc. Since the conversion of most of our electronic tools and appliances to digital technology, it has become integrated into our day-to-day life, and adopted for various artistic interventions..

Digital art

The concept of digital art is a broad term that had a profound meaning in the early days of the digital revolution but had become ubiquitous as it progressed. Generally speaking, it could be defined as art that is created with the use of digital technology and is presented in forms such as, but not limited to, audio, video, digital painting, digital sculptures, or 3D printing, text, programmes, interactive platforms etc. Read more: V&A: Digital Art.
Interactive art
In traditional art forms, viewers are seen as passive entities in relation to the artwork's shape and interpretation. Subsequently, in such artworks, interaction is largely limited to viewing objects as inanimate and stationary. Interactive art, on the other hand, looks at the artwork as an event, a platform or a space within which the viewer may take an active role. The viewer not only has a direct “contact” with the artwork but also becomes part of it. Interaction can take many shapes and forms, such as sculptures that can be touched and installations that can be moved. Interactive artworks often capture and process live information with the use of computers and a range of sensors, for example.

The Internet of Things

The internet of things refers to the connection of a physical object, or group of physical objects, in reality to the Internet via information sensing devices. It is used in a wide range of industries such as healthcare, construction and industry, for example using devices to monitor patients' physical signs and to process and feedback this data according to agreed protocols. Feel like this needs more explaination.

New media art

New media art is a broad concept that incorporates contemporary media technologies in its creation: video, digitisation, sound, 3D printing and so on, and is therefore distinct from traditional art forms. New media art began to emerge in the 1950s and the quantity and quality of work grew rapidly in the 1990s with the development of internet technology. Maybe say where, Europe?

Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT)

NFT is often thought to denote artworks that attracted attention around 2020 and that can be traded on the blockchain (see next entry). However, NFT is not an artwork, but is used to record and verify the existence of certain projects and transactions. In other words, the NFT is a credential used to record and prove that the artwork is linked into the blockchain. Not only artworks, but any documents, applications can be stored to the blockchain and mint NFTs.


This term is closely related to Internet art and is somewhat controversial in the art world. In the absence of a description of the art form, Post-Internet can often only represent an artistic idea and lead to a wider discussion of the Internet age. Post-Internet is also often considered to represent the 21st century art movement that originated from Internet art. I feel like this needs more explanation. What or who triggered this discussion?

Sound art

Sound art does not only refer to pleasant sounds (music, poetry, etc.) but also to forms of artistic creation using sound as a medium. It encompasses a wide range of sound forms: noise, music, etc., and advocates respect for sound and the sense of hearing.

Virtual art

Virtual art is often thought of as the virtualization what is virtualization? of art. VR technology was introduced to art as a result of the huge technological advances of the 1990s. It allows for the creation of a simulated reality for the viewer, capturing their physical information to create an interactive sensory experience. Virtual art is the type of art that is created on the basis of this technology World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web is the "www" in web address. “www” is stored on the Internet as a document, presented as a "page" and displayed by a "web browser The "Web browser" displays these documents on the Internet. These documents on the Internet are linked by a "Hyperlink" and arranged and organized by a "Website".




An archive is a collection of objects that together provide information about a place, a person, an event, or a moment in time. Archives are used all the time, as either digital databases of information or physical collections of files and objects. Whatever the format, archives are usually catalogued, meaning each item in the collection has a letter or number assigned to it which is typically recorded on an online database system. Archives have an important place in society, as the information they hold can help us to learn about the past and inform the future.

In the arts, an archive is often a collection of works or material about a specific artist or art movement, and is usually either part of a private collection or kept and maintained by a gallery or museum. The Tate galleries, for example, have an archive that contains material relating to the history of British art by artists, arts organisations, and prominent art world figures. Because the Tate is government funded their archives︎︎︎ are open to the public. They also have a collection of digitised archives available online, these are physical artworks which have been either scanned or photographed in high resolution and made into digitised images.

A recent challenge facing archivists is the need to archive artworks that are born digital. These are artworks that exist solely on or can only be accessed through digital mediums. Net art is an example of this, as the artworks do not have a physical presence and therefore the task of cataloguing them becomes difficult. Furthermore, as developments in technology are rapidly changing, some technologies are becoming obsolete and out of date (remember VHS tapes, or floppy disks!) posing the risk of loss of access. Because many net.art artworks are accessed via hyperlink, their existence, and preservation, is dependent on the platform upon which it exists, meaning that archives now face the challenge of preserving and maintaining software, operating systems, applications and devices.

Net.Art Anthology ︎︎︎

It poses the question of whether net art needs to be archived at all, and whether the works should succumb to the ever growing number of sites now obsolete or inaccessible as technology and operating systems update. As well as this there is the more practical issue of creating and funding the physical and digital space and labour needed to house an archive.

Whilst this is true, archives provide the opportunity for those who did not see the artwork first hand to engage with and learn from. The pace and ease at which the internet changes poses a threat to our digital cultural memory, technical legacy and our social history, and therefore maintaining digital records prevents this loss. Check out this article on the Tate website to read more here︎︎︎.

An example of an active net.art archive is net art anthology︎︎︎. An online exhibition created by Rhizome, the site posted a work of net.art every week for two years, culminating in the collection of 100 artworks documenting net art history. The project challenges and addresses the lack of historical perspectives on little studied and sometimes inaccessible works, by identifying, preserving, and presenting works that make it possible to trace the development of net art. The site now acts as a great entrypoint to net art, making the works visible and accessible.



In terms of sustainability, in addition to the sustainability of projects, energy has become an aspect that requires more attention at a time when the crisis and the situation are becoming more complex.

Does digital really mean total environmental protection and savings? What kind of impact do our online projects have on the environment?

Virtually every view and click we make consumes energy. If your work contains hyperlinks, you can use the link below to do a calculation to see how much energy your website's carbon footprint consumes:
Carbon Calculators︎︎︎

Also, tips for reducing energy consumption on the web can be obtained through the following links:
Tips to Reduce Energy Consumption on Webpages︎︎︎

A great example on questions of sustainability:

Environmental conciousness is key. Consider it throughout your entire journey of creating online!︎