Beta is the second of the Greek letters. Beta version is in the second version stage of software development. The first phase of the internal version Alpha was not stable enough and was only tested internally, as well as many features were not yet fully developed. Compared to the Alpha version, the Beta version is tested for the public and is more stable, but still needs to be completed and new features and content added


Blockchains, also known as "distributed ledgers", can be used to store information. Information is stored in "blocks" that are distributed in a way that links the end of the previous block like a chain. The birth and development of blockchain have been influenced by cryptography, where cryptographers aim to create a record that cannot be tampered with in order to achieve a trustworthy system construction. Due to the important role of technologies such as “timestamp technology” and “blind signature” algorithms in its development, blockchain technologies are thought to be untamperable. The blockchain is also decentralised compared to the widely used of storing information of today. Currently, our information is stored in a number of servers, which can simply be physically stored in a building. If a fire broke out in the building and destroyed the servers, the information would be lost. The decentralised distribution of the blockchain would avoid this massive loss of data, as the servers would not be stored centrally in one building.

Computer art

The term originated in the magazine Computers and Automation in 1963. It refers to art forms that incorporate computer technology into the creation of art. Computer art is often used as an early precursor to “digital art”. It usually is spoken about in the context of early experimentation with computer painting, drawing and image processing, and refers to a specific group of artists who pioneered and contributed greatly to the creation of such digital technologies that we use today for visual processing. Computer art was developed in the early 1970’s through collaborations between artists and technological laboratories. The most famous of which is Dell laboratory that included such pioneering figures as: Claude Shannon, Ken Knowlton, Leon Harmon, Lillian Schwartz, Charles Csuri, A. Michael Noll, Edward Zajec, and Billy Klüver, an engineer who also collaborated with Robert Rauschenberg to form Experiments in Art and Technology (EAT)

Crypto Art

Crypto Art It is an emerging term and there is no very clear and unambiguous explanation or concept of it. From reading and comparing the contexts in which the term appears, it can be tentatively concluded that crypto art is often used to denote the art of linking into a cryptography-based distributed database (blockchain), and therefore crypto art is also equated with NFT art in many cases.

Crypto Mining

Crypto mining is the process of verifying cryptocurrency transactions and adding them to the blockchain. The person who completes this process is known as a "miner". In simple terms, miners use equipment to perform work in support of the blockchain and are rewarded with cryptocurrency by creating a “Proof of Work”. This is a complex term involving computer concepts such as "Hash" and "Peer-to-Peer". Read more: Hash Functions and Cryptocurrency Mining.


Cryptocurrency is also known as a digital asset. Cryptocurrency transactions are based on a decentralised blockchain and are secured using “smart contracts” and other cryptographic technologies, as opposed to the central bank model. Because transactions are carried out by smart contracts and an untamperable record of transactions is recorded on the blockchain, transactions in cryptocurrencies do not need to be regulated by other authorities or guaranteed by third-party institutions.

Digital Technology

Digital technology is characterised by its use of binary code, to emit electronic transmissions that are translated into image, sound and other faculties. . It is usually referring to technology that is developed with the use of computers. The premise of digital technology is related to what is called ‘the multimedia revolution’ - the ability to directly translate different inputs such as light, sound, movement etc. into one language that can then be translated back to an image, sound or a set of data - all on the same device. Digital technology allows us to consume different outputs with one compact device- like our computer or phone - and translate sound to image, image to sound, movement to a set of data that can be translated as an image - etc. Since the conversion of most of our electronic tools and appliances to digital technology, it has become integrated into our day-to-day life, and adopted for various artistic interventions..

Digital art

The concept of digital art is a broad term that had a profound meaning in the early days of the digital revolution but had become ubiquitous as it progressed. Generally speaking, it could be defined as art that is created with the use of digital technology and is presented in forms such as, but not limited to, audio, video, digital painting, digital sculptures, or 3D printing, text, programmes, interactive platforms etc. Read more: V&A: Digital Art.
Interactive art
In traditional art forms, viewers are seen as passive entities in relation to the artwork's shape and interpretation. Subsequently, in such artworks, interaction is largely limited to viewing objects as inanimate and stationary. Interactive art, on the other hand, looks at the artwork as an event, a platform or a space within which the viewer may take an active role. The viewer not only has a direct “contact” with the artwork but also becomes part of it. Interaction can take many shapes and forms, such as sculptures that can be touched and installations that can be moved. Interactive artworks often capture and process live information with the use of computers and a range of sensors, for example.

The Internet of Things

The internet of things refers to the connection of a physical object, or group of physical objects, in reality to the Internet via information sensing devices. It is used in a wide range of industries such as healthcare, construction and industry, for example using devices to monitor patients' physical signs and to process and feedback this data according to agreed protocols. Feel like this needs more explaination.

New media art

New media art is a broad concept that incorporates contemporary media technologies in its creation: video, digitisation, sound, 3D printing and so on, and is therefore distinct from traditional art forms. New media art began to emerge in the 1950s and the quantity and quality of work grew rapidly in the 1990s with the development of internet technology. Maybe say where, Europe?

Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT)

NFT is often thought to denote artworks that attracted attention around 2020 and that can be traded on the blockchain (see next entry). However, NFT is not an artwork, but is used to record and verify the existence of certain projects and transactions. In other words, the NFT is a credential used to record and prove that the artwork is linked into the blockchain. Not only artworks, but any documents, applications can be stored to the blockchain and mint NFTs.


This term is closely related to Internet art and is somewhat controversial in the art world. In the absence of a description of the art form, Post-Internet can often only represent an artistic idea and lead to a wider discussion of the Internet age. Post-Internet is also often considered to represent the 21st century art movement that originated from Internet art. I feel like this needs more explanation. What or who triggered this discussion?

Sound art

Sound art does not only refer to pleasant sounds (music, poetry, etc.) but also to forms of artistic creation using sound as a medium. It encompasses a wide range of sound forms: noise, music, etc., and advocates respect for sound and the sense of hearing.

Virtual art

Virtual art is often thought of as the virtualization what is virtualization? of art. VR technology was introduced to art as a result of the huge technological advances of the 1990s. It allows for the creation of a simulated reality for the viewer, capturing their physical information to create an interactive sensory experience. Virtual art is the type of art that is created on the basis of this technology World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web is the "www" in web address. “www” is stored on the Internet as a document, presented as a "page" and displayed by a "web browser The "Web browser" displays these documents on the Internet. These documents on the Internet are linked by a "Hyperlink" and arranged and organized by a "Website".

The Beta Toolkit

This project is part of arebyte gallery 2022/2023 program ‘Sci-Fi”. Read more ︎︎︎here.

When we first started working on the project, we were prompted to reflect on our personal values and how they can function as an input for the project. We have collectively reached two intrinsic values: inclusivity and inspiration. It was clear that among us there was a necessity to work towards a result that made our users feel included and inspired by what we had to offer.  The field of New Media, and net.art in particular seemed unapproachable, we were not completely aware of what we were getting into. Our familiarity with it varied between us and it felt important to have a collective understanding of this type of art and creative practice. We have been invited by ︎︎︎Arebyte gallery to guide and aid curators in their journey into the expanding field of online curation. What is online curation really? Is that even correct to say?

What is the difference between physical an online curation, if that difference is established in the first place. Online and physical curation may not as dissimilar as one might think. There is definitely an overlap in the logistics of curating online or physically. The focus of the project is the assembly of a digital network of creative practitioners, a support system to guide each other through the processes and challenges of online curating.  The toolkit aims to provide a useful theoretical context for the history, reperesentaton and the contemporary relevance of net.art. 

At the same time, the tool kit would bring together tools deemed necessary by the group in the process of curating. There is an attempt to map and layout the complex and layered journey of navigating the possibilities and challenges of curating online. The project has been characterised by a divide between the theoretical complexities of net.art and the practicalities of curating. The open relationship between the two informs the logic of our toolkit, which is divided on the theoretical aspect of internet art, and the practical aspects of curating. It was a distinction we considered fundamental to make, as it helped us in our process of understanding. You must first understand what you are attempting to curate. How can you care about something without knowing as much as possible about it? How can you care about something if you don’t know how to take care of it? Curation comes from the italian verb ‘curare’. What do we care about? We care about the users. There is a certain kind of empathy of even ‘solidarity’ to aspiring and emerging curators out there. We have acknowledged the opportunity to provide a resource for other curators. ︎

‘Beta’, is the name given to the trial version of an eventually finished product. The name reflects our embrace of the processes of online curation, versus the prospect of its eventual ‘final’ form. What our experience tought us  is to trust the process. We’ve learned that the its is in fact the process that answers our questions, not the result the of the process. We had found ourselves stuck between the initial prompt of the brief and an ambitious and abstract idea of a tool kit. How could we possibly bridge those two states of mind? The notion of a ‘trial version’ suggests the need for updates, adjustments and additions. It is a open invitation to practitioners and people in the community to engage with, suggest and give feedback and what we have to offer. Perhaps, a final form might never exist, as one might expect it.

There might never be a finished version of the toolkit, at least we hope that it can follow the internet and its technologies in the future. Its tricky discussing legacy in virtual years, where things change and evolve so quickly. We are very aware of the meta-ness of our project. As it all came together, we realised that we were curating a set of tools for people to curate. Therefore, we are ought to be aware of our curatorial position in assembling the toolkit, and what exactly informs our curatorial praxis. Upon reflecting, it only seemed appropriate to gather references and resources, which in fact helped us understand the seemingly alienating world of internet art. Why would we even provide any resources that were not helpful to us at all? It is a classic example of ‘i’ve done it so you don’t have to’. We are curating a layered and complex piece of research, hoping to make this world of the internet, accessible and inspiring to other people.

Our curatorial position is defined by a responsibility to render something accessible as inspiring. Of course, there is always abundant room for research, especially for a field that is constantly expanding. We hope to provide a smooth induction on the complex world of net.art. Heath Bunting described our project as an attempt to create an  ‘automated’ curator. There is great value in that, considering the potentialities of the project we were given. There is also value in helping us understand the gravity of our endeavour, that we are in fact assembling a set of processes for curators to follow in their practice.


What was explicit throughout most of the interviews, was the overwhelming sense of urgency to bring together practitioners who work online. There was apparent a lack of a supporting network, which one could turn to for advice, solutions or just emotional support. It has been made clear to us that creating and curating online can be stressful and unpredictable. We felt compelled to facilitate that network, bring all these people together to interact and engage with each other. As a starting point for the forum, we decided to showcase our interaction with current and former practitioners of net.art, hoping to inspire people who are intimidated or alienated from the realm of online curation. Returning back to the caring aspect of curation, we want to create an ecosystem of care and support within the community, to support current practitioners, while at the same time bringing in people who are interested in these practices. 


A-Z is our Glossary. Our initial inability to distinguish between a number of key terms in the field, prompted the formation of a glossary, a dictionary of important terms one needs to be aware of and their meaning when entering the world of curating online. The glossary is a collection of terms we had to clear between ourselves, as well as ones we find on our way through the research.


Arebyte brings innovative perspectives to art through new technologies

Arebyte leads a pioneering digital art programme at the intersection of new technologies and contemporary culture. From net art’s inception in the 90s to more recent innovations in computer technology from VR to AI, the programme invites multiple voices to create multimedia installations at arebyte Gallery, London, and online experiences at arebyte on Screen.

Alongside the art programme, arebyte Skills shares knowledge on creative media technologies with audiences of all ages. Run in partnership with artists and the education and youth sectors, the programme offers activities for amateurs and professionals to develop hands-on digital techniques and gain critical thinking around digital art practices through workshops, artist development programmes, university residencies and panel discussions.

Arebyte also supports a vibrant community of artists, designers and creative technologists through arebyte Studios, an initiative that provides affordable workspaces to 150 creative professionals across London.


Carolina Buccellati

is a visual and editorial designer and curator. Her practice aims to articulate and visually communicate spiritual and esoteric assemblages in our culture, through spatial practises. She actively researches and engages with multidisciplinary emerging and contemporary artists.

Andreas Andronikou

is a visual artist and curator. He has developed an artistic practice revolving around themes of the human condition in the panorama of digital communication. He tries to find a relationship between fragmented and mediated images, and what  this confrontation means.

Ping Xue

is a curator, creative producer and event organiser in the fields of culture, art and business. Her research focuses on alternative exhibition spaces in Chinese and Western contexts, most recently on the topic of field, display and viewing in art exhibition spaces.

Ula Deru

is a designer and curator. Driven by digital practices and their relationship to spatial and visual cultures, she prompts conversation between the virtual and visual with an emphasis on diplomacy and multiculturality in the arts.

Jianing Wu

is a product designer and curator. She focuses on the challenges faced by museums and the transformation of curatorial identity in the context of the digital age.

Amelia Kedge

is a writer and curator. Her writing interrogates and revalues performativity in the dominant social media landscape. She takes an authoethnographic approach to these topics, through the curation and representation of self-image.

Lexian Xu

is a writer, researcher and curator. Research of fashion design, communication and collection through the landscape of digital blockchain technology, through a cultural lens.


Vuk Ćosić  

Zach Blas

Beryl Graham

Heath Bunting

Tian Xiaolei

Hu Bin

Elliott Burns

Pita Arreola-Burns

Nimrod Vardi

Rebecca Edwards

Lee Weinberg


Shinji Toya

Sherbet Green Gallery